From the Haiduks to the Bogomils: Transformation of the Partisan Myth after World War II

Tanja Zimmermann

Povzetek:

Esej se ukvarja s poglavitnimi viri formacije jugoslovanskega partizanskega mita, pri čemer se osredotoča tako na zgodovinske kot tudi kulturne vplive. Že leta 1944, ko se je vzpostavljala legenda o Titu kot voditelju partizanov, je obstajal zgodovinski model, iz katerega je bilo možno črpati – to so bili hajduki, izobčeni balkanski uporniki, katerih boj s Turki so opevale ljudske pesmi in folklora. Takoj po vojni – kot to lahko vidimo prek transformacije Slavka Babića iz srbskega upornika v kopijo Stalina v filmu Abrama Rooma V gorah Jugoslavije (1946) – je vlogo mentorja jugoslovanskih partizanov prevzela sovjetska Rdeča armada. Po sporu Tita s Stalinom se je nov vir navdiha našel v slovenskih in hrvaških kmečkih uporih iz 16. stoletja, ki so obenem služili tudi kot matrica za idejo bratstva in enotnosti. Ne film, pač pa enormna zgodovinska poslikava Krsta Hegedušića, ki je svojčas krasila Titov znameniti kabinet v Beogradu, je širila to izročilo med jugoslovanske narode. Zgodba o partizanskih prednikih se zaključi z odkritjem srednjeveške sekte heretikov, bogomilov in njihovih nagrobnih plošč, ki predstavljajo neodvisnost in avtonomijo jugoslovanske »tretje poti« med kapitalizmom in komunizmom. Ne zgolj orjaški partizanski spomeniki Bogdana Bogdanovića, pač pa tudi ikonični partizanski film, Bitka na Neretvi (1969), vsebujejo sledi tega mita. Partizani se med svojim bojem skrivajo za bosanskimi/bogomilskimi nagrobnimi ploščami, ki obenem simbolizirajo oltar bratstva in žalni spomenik.

Abstract:

This essay reconstructs the main sources for the formation of the partisan myth in Yugoslavia, hereby focusing on historical as well as cultural influences. Already in 1944, when Tito was first built up as a legend of partisan leadership, there existed a historical model which could be drawn from – the Haiduks, lawless Balkan rebels, whose fight against the Turks was praised in songs and folklore. Just after the war – as is shown in the transformation of Slavko Babić from a Serbian rebel to an almost perfect Stalin-look-alike in Abram Room’s film V gorakh Jugoslavii (1946) – the Red Army took pole position in functioning as the Yugoslav partisans’ ancestors and teachers. The communist mission, however, was substituted soon after the break between Stalin and Tito, when the Slovene and Croatian peasants’ uprisings of the 16th century preconfigured the new ideology of brotherhood-and-unity. Not a film, but an enormous history painting by Krsto Hegedušić – that at the time decorated Tito’s famous working room in Belgrade – spread the lore to the Yugoslav people. The story of the partisans’ ancestry ends with the rediscovery of the medieval heretic sect of the Bogomils and their funeral steles, representing the independence and
autonomy of Yugoslavia’s “third way”. Not only Bogdan Bogdanović’s huge partisan monuments but also the icon of partisan film, Battle of Neretva (1969), shows traces of this myth. The partisans hide behind the Bosnian/Bogomil steles during their fight; but at the same time the steles (stecci) serve as an altar of brotherhood and a funeral monument.