Hopla-di-klop: nekaj razmislekov k partizanski estetiki in političnemu spominu

Zoran Terzić

Prevedel Marko Bratina

Povzetek:

Esej se prične s filmskim spominom mojega otroštva: s prizorom usmrtitve treh partizanov. Izkaže se, da gre za lažen spomin, saj opisani prizor ne pripada nobenemu partizanskemu filmu, pač pa se nahaja v Stezah slave Stanleyja Kubricka. Navzlic temu zagovarjam tezo, da tisto, kar nek film napravlja za »partizanski«, ni nujno prisotnost partizanskih likov, pač pa estetska in politična »tekstura« filma. V tem smislu kritiziram velike, državno sponzorirane jugoslovanske produkcije, kakršna je na primer Bitka na Neretvi, kot lažne partizanske filme, saj generirajo nekaj, kar imenujem mit drugega reda. Mit drugega reda pretvarja svoj objekt v navidezno blago; zgodovinsko partizansko gibanje pretvori v film, namesto da bi film pretvoril v »partizansko gibanje«. Nadalje ugotavljam, da mit drugega reda na podoben način postane modus operandi jugoslovanskih nacionalističnih gibanj iz osemdesetih, z njihovo narcisoidno tendenco potvarjanja identitet, zgodovinsko megalomanijo in »logistično« zakoreninjenostjo v fašizmu druge svetovne vojne. Epizoda z mojim lažnim spominom skratka razkriva nevarnosti podleganja tistemu, kar je Hans Blumenfeld nekoč označil za »absolutni mit« in kar sam imenujem mit drugega reda.

Abstract:

Hopla-di-klop: Thoughts on Partisan Aesthetics and Political Remembrance

This essay begins with a filmic memory of my childhood: a scene where three partisans are being executed. However, it is a fake memory. The film concerned turns out to have not been a partisan film but Stanley Kubrick's Paths of Glory. Yet, I argue that what makes a film 'partisan' is not necessarily the participation of partisan characters but its aesthetic and political 'texture'. Accordingly, I criticize big state-sponsored Yugoslav productions like The Battle of Neretva as fake partisan films because they generate what I call a myth of the second order. A myth of the second order turns its object into a virtual commodity, it transforms the historical partisan movement into a film instead of turning a film into a 'partisan movement'. I argue further, that the myth of the second order similarly becomes the modus operandi of Yugoslavia's nationalist movements of the late 1980s with their narcissistic attachment to contrafactual identity claims, historical megalomania, and their 'logistic' foundation in WW2 fascism. In short: the episode of my fake memory reveals the chances and dangers of falling prey to what Hans Blumenfeld once has called 'absolute myth' and what I have called a myth of the second order.