Je mogoče o jugoslovanskem partizanskem filmu govoriti kot o žanru?

Peter Stanković

Povzetek:

Filmi na temo partizanskega boja med drugo svetovno vojno so se snemali celotno obdobje socialistične Jugoslavije. Ker je bilo to obdobje razmeroma dolgo in ker so se v tem času močno spreminjali politični, socialni in estetski konteksti, nenazadnje pa tudi stilistične konvencije in izrazni okviri, je bilo v tem času posnetih veliko zelo raznolikih filmov. Avtor prispevka se sprašuje, ali je glede na to sploh mogoče govoriti o jugoslovanskem partizanskem filmu kot konsistentnem žanru, in po analizi najpomembnejših celovečercev s partizansko tematiko ugotavlja, da so jugoslovanski partizanski filmi v splošnem preveč heterogeni, da bi jih povezovalo karkoli drugega od njihove vsebine same, partizanskega boja. Ker na drugi strani med vsemi posnetimi partizanskimi filmi izstopajo spektakularni akcijski prispevki iz sedemdesetih let (obdobje »rdečega vala«, ki ga odpira Bitka na Neretvi Veljka Bulajića), za katere je značilna močna stilistična koherentnost, avtor pravi, da so žanrsko konsistentni vsaj ti filmi, t. im. partizanarice. Primerjalna analiza ameriških westernov in jugoslovanskih partizanaric s pomočjo strukturalistične metode, ki jo je uporabil Will Wright, pokaže tako na močne strukturne analogije med tema dvema na prvi pogled zelo različnima žanroma kot tudi strukturno konsistentnost partizanaric samih, v sklepnem delu pa avtor izpostavi nekaj vsebinskih značinosti partizanaric, zaradi katerih so ti filmi relevantni še (posebej) danes.

Abstract:

Is It Possible to Speak of Partisan Film As a Genre?

Films about partisan struggles during the WWII were produced constantly in the period of socialist Yugoslavia. Since this period was relatively long and since it has seen numerous shifts in political, social and aesthetic contexts, but also shifts in stylistic conventions and forms of expression, many very different films were produced. Considering this fact, text questions the possibility of speaking of Yugoslavian partisan film as a consistent genre. Analysis of most important feature films dealing with partisan subjects shows that Yugoslavian partisan films are in general too heterogeneous to be linked by anything other than their content, the partisan struggle itself. Group of films, standing out from the rest, are the action spectacles from the 70ies
(the period of the so-called “red wave”, beginning with Battle of Neretva by Veljko Bulajić), arguably stylistically coherent enough to be defined as a genre. The comparative analysis of American westerns and these Yugoslavian partisan films – with the help of Will Wright’s structural method – points out to strong structural analogies between these two seemingly very different genres, but also to a structural consistency of partisan films themselves. The author concludes by pointing out certain topical specifics of partisan films which make them (especially) relevant for our times.