Novo dokumentarno gibanje na Kitajskem – začetki kitajskega neodvisnega dokumentarnega filma

Barbara Spreiz

Povzetek:

Novo dokumentarno gibanje je pomembna prelomnica v zgodovini kitajskega dokumentarnega filma. Po dolgih letih politično nadzorovane filmske produkcije so v poznih osemdesetih prejšnjega stoletja vzniknili prvi kitajski neodvisni dokumentarci. Skupina mladih filmarjev, z Wu Wenguangom, Duan Jinchuanom in Jiang Yuejem na čelu, je razglasila svojo finančno in ideološko neodvisnost od države. S sposojenimi kamerami in svežimi idejami so spontano začeli dokumentarno gibanje, ki je ponovno definiralo pojem »dokumentarni film« na Kitajskem. Pod vplivom predstavnikov in principov filma resnice in direktnega filma so kamero obrnili k običajnim ljudem, marginaliziranim družbenim skupinam in javnim institucijam. Poskušali so se družbeno enačiti s svojimi subjekti, a vseeno ohraniti svojo lastno interpretativno pozicijo. Utrujeni od politične propagande so stremeli k odkrivanju realnosti kitajske družbe. Večina dokumentarcev iz tega obdobja ni nikoli dosegla domačega občinstva, saj so bila javna predvajanja filmov, ki jih oblasti niso predhodno odobrile, strogo prepovedana. Kljub temu je novemu dokumentarnemu gibanju uspelo začrtati vrednote in principe sodobnega dokumentarnega ustvarjanja na Kitajskem.

Abstract:

New Documentary Movement: beginnings of Chinese independent documentary film

New Documentary Movement is an important part of the history of documentary film in China. Following a long period of politically controlled media production, the late 1980s saw the emergence of first Chinese independent documentaries. A group of young filmmakers, led by Wu Wenguang, Duan Jinchuan and Jiang Yue as the most prominent authors, declared financial and ideological independence from the State. With borrowed cameras and fresh ideas they spontaneously started a documentary movement that redefined the term “documentary” in China. Heavily influenced by authors and principles of cinema vérite and direct cinema, they turned the cameras towards ordinary people, marginalized social groups and public institutions. They worked towards a social identification with the subjects they portrayed, yet tried to maintain their own interpretative positions. Tired of political propaganda, the filmmakers have strived to uncover the reality of Chinese society. The majority of documentary works made at the time never reached domestic audiences since public screenings of films, which were not approved by the Chinese authorities, were strictly forbidden. Nevertheless, New Documentary Movement succeeded in setting the values and principles for present day documentary filmmaking in China.