Shortly after the Lumière brothers projected the first moving pictures, film history split into two parallel paths. The first followed the market economy; it began with the presentation of reality and continued with the rise of Hollywood and later television. The second path was first sparked by showmen, then by poets and painters who established film as an art form and, finally, by experimental filmmakers, whose experimenting served as a source of new ideas for the commercial film industry. They persisted through decades by coming together in cooperatives. Today, in the world of digital images, these cooperatives enable the new generations of filmmakers to have the opportunity to create their films on celluloid.

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